UWSOM Use of Patient Identifiers in Foundations Curriculum

Verbal Feedback for Continuous Learning (updated)



  1. Establish feedback as an expected, frequent educational routine

  2. Link feedback to the learners’ goals and to established learning objectives

  3. Observe with efficiency—short, targeted observations for data collection

  4. Focus feedback on your observations of specific, modifiable behaviors

  5. Conduct timely conversations

  6. Use the framework: Prepare to ADAPT: Ask–Discuss–Ask–Plan Together

  7. Keep your feedback brief and digestible - limit to 1-2 main points each time

  8. Plan future performance improvements with the learner


» Verbal Feedback Tips (PDF)

Eberly Center at Carnegie Mellon University

The Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence and Educational Innovation brings pedagogical and technological issues together to support Carnegie Mellon faculty and graduate students in their roles as educators. CLIME encourages you to explore their site, which has resources related to designing and teaching courses, using technology for teaching, assessing teaching and learning, and designing and conducting education research.

Practical Tips for Facilitating Small Groups


  1. Show students you are invested in them as individuals

  2. Demonstrate enthusiasm for your material

  3. Prepare class materials and your plan to navigate the material ahead of time

  4. Organize your room to foster discussion and collaboration

  5. Set expectations with your group



  1. Facilitate discussion rather than lecturing

  2. Redirect questions you receive to the group

  3. Plan questions and questioning strategies

  4. Allow students ample time to respond to your questions

  5. “The Dominating Student”: Redirect, avoid engaging, reiterate all expected to participate, meet privately

  6. “The Quiet Student”: Ask a question you know they know, pair-share, reinforce contributions, meet privately

  7. Plan use of the white board—sketch it out—use a “parking lot”, note key points.

  8. Ask students for feedback before the end of the course.

Learner Centered Teaching



  1. Learner-centered teaching is an approach that seeks to develop independent learners by encouraging students to become aware of how they are learning and to make learning skills something they want to develop.
  2. Learner-centered teachers are guided by 2 questions: “How can I best promote learning?” and “How can I balance guidance and independence?”
  3. The critical features of learning can be grouped into Skill (content), Will (motivation) and Meta-skill (learning strategies).
  4. The goal of education should be shifting students’ expectations for external guidance (from the teacher) to achieving self-guidance (by the student alone).
  5. We can balance the friction between guidance and independence through shared guidance - maintaining a dialogue with students that allows us to adapt our instruction to their individual needs.


» Orienting Teaching Toward the Learning Process (PDF)

Written Feedback for Continuous Learning



  1. Be timely with written feedback
  2. Consider the learning outcomes and expectations of both the program and the learner
  3. Begin with a brief summary
  4. Focus on no more than three areas of improvement
  5. Include reasonable detail for the learner to act on
  6. Echo what has already been discussed verbally
  7. Create a balance between appreciating, coaching and evaluating
  8. Suggest a plan for improvement with the learner


» Pearls for Written Feedback (PDF)
» Written Feedback Tips

Learning Objectives



  1. Learning objectives inform learners about what they should achieve after engaging in a learning activity to demonstrate competence.
  2. Learning objectives should be in the future tense, relate to explicit statements of achievement, always contain action verbs and be easily understood.
  3. Incorporate learning objectives from each of the three domains of Bloom's taxonomy- cognitive, affective and psychomotor- and aim for the highest order of function.
  4. Write SMART learning objectives: Specific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Reasonable, and Time-bound.
  5. To write an objective: State the condition, Specify the audience, Select the appropriate action verb, and Specify criteria for evaluation.


Writing and Working with Cases



Cases are descriptions of real world scenarios you can use to help students learn how to approach problems in the way a clinician would.

  1. The first step in writing a case is to write learning objectives describing what you want learners to know or be able to do after working through the case.

  2. You can create cases for different learning approaches: problem based learning (students lead the learning activities), case based learning (instructors guide the learning activities), or team based learning (the emphasis is on collaborative learning).

  3. Cases should be difficult enough to hold students’ interest and motivate them to learn – but not so difficult as to be frustrating.

  4. Personal experience or that of a colleague can be very helpful to make the case realistic and to attach some humanness to the case.

  5. Plan how you’ll work through the case with your students.

It’s helpful to have answer keys ready to distribute after class (or online) so students aren’t frustrated if the group doesn’t get through all of the material.